Menu, menu knowledge and accompaniments

ex-of-menuOrigin of menu

It is said that in the year of 1541 the Duke Henry of burns ricks was seen refers long sleep of paper on being asked what he was cooking yet. He said it was form of programmed of the dishes by the difference, he could see that was coming and reserved appetite a Duke make list of food items which he want to show a food item in the party on the arrival of the guest. So that the guest may choose the dishes from the cards. This was 1st advantages record, there was no any wastage of food. The idea of listing food item was appetite and was favorable and since that day the word “Menu” came in existence. The main aim of food menu or beverage list is to inform the customer in a day way of what is available to them. As the sense tour it after direct the customer as what to choose by the well plan and project. A Menu represents the food and beverage offered in restaurant, whether it is represented whether as a card it is preferred as menu card.

The word Menu is a French term used to denote the item of food are available in an established. The term Menu means “Menu in details” in English it is term as “bill of fair”. The Menu is the list of food and beverage item which are served at one place at one time.

Menu ca tells you everything you need to know about what is available in restaurant. Menu is the heart of every food service operation; customers are kept informed of what dishes are available in the restaurant and the price per dish. The Menu also allows restaurant operator to promote certain dishes in high visibility positions.

Types of menu

Menus offered by various food service establishments come under the following categories:

  1. Table d’ hote Menu
  2. A la carte Menu
  3. Other types of Menus:
  • plat du jour
  • carte du jour

1. Classic Menu sequence: (French classic Menu)
Over the last 100 years ago so years ago the sequence of European menu has taken a classic format which is used to layout menu as well as to indicate the order of various courses. Now days full classical Menu is rarely served except as a special dinner on banquet Menu.
The general process age is to have 4/5 course for a dinner menu and 5/6 course for a banquet Menu. There are 11 courses all together making of a French classical Menu. This form of Menu shows the true. Completion of Menu, where balance to be perfect throughout the courses with specially with regards due to the nutritional value, method of cooking, Garnishing etc. Before attempting such menu and establishment must ensure that the preparation of food a service area are the process of classic Menu sequence.
I. HORS D’ OEUVRS (appetizer/ starter)
III. POISSON (Fish course)
IV. ENTRÉE ( 1st Meat course)
V. RELEVE (Joint/Main meat course)
VI. SORBET (Rest course)
VII. ROTI ( Rosted course)
VIII. LEGUME (Veg course)
IX. ENTREMENT (Sweet course)
X. SAVOUREX (Hot sweet course)
XI. DESSERT (Not and cracker)


1-4= [Appetizer/starter]
5= [Main meal course]
6= [Rest course]
7-11= [After course]

I. HORS D’ OEUVRES (Starter): Traditionally this course consist a variety of compound salad, but now includes item such as fruits, sea food, smoked fish etc. It is a small appetizing dish which a meal often commerce because it stimulates the flow of saliva.

Appetizer can be divided into two types:

a) General: Potato salad, egg may onnaice, chicken shallot, salame, smoked salmon etc are general appetizer.
Service: serve in half plate with HORS D’ OEUVRES knife and Fork.

b) Classical:
i. Plain salad: Plain salad includes cucumber salad, tomato salad, potato salad, red cabbage, cauliflower etc.
ii. Compound salad: compound salad includes Russian salad, mix-vegetable, Mayonnaise etc.
Egg: Egg can be poached hard-boiled. Cut into two piece a garnish stocked with various falling including yolk.
Fruit cocktail: usually served in glass or some form of bowl. These are eaten with tea-spoon and custard sugar risk offered specially if grape fruit include in cocktail.
Fresh Fruit: Either served in plate/bowl eaten in a side knife or sweet Fork if served in plate. Usually hot accompaniment is offered sometime might serve custard sugar.


II. POTAGE (Soup course): This is the end course of French classical menu and also act as an appetizer. It is an extract of meat, poultry, vegetable, fish in a stock or water. It is probable that soup in its earlier is form a complete meal because it was found economical and wholesome. The function of soup is to supply immediately requirement of the nutrients in our body. Being the light form it can observed quit easily can be utilized being the liquid form can generally there are 2 types of soup on the menu. They are thick and thin soup, It means (cream, puree, veloute) clear consomme bowling but only on soup served with each meal thick. Thick soup are served in a soup plate and cutleries will be soup spoon, consomme cup with saucer in half plate Dessert spoon.


III. POISSON ( Fish course): Most Fishes are edible it is soft Fiber tender Food. The most nourishing Fish are river water Fish such as well salmon, trout, tuna etc. These are easily digested and helps of prepare the appetizer for the heavier dish to come. Two type of Fishes are served in the table d’ dinner, one is poached (boil) Fish are served with hollandaise or any other similar sauce plain, steam and boiled. potatoes are offered with this type of fish and second one is Grilled or Fry Fish. These are served with tartar sauce or tomato sauce for the lunch menu fish course can be replaced by egg, fish course is normally served in banquet menu or in a dinner menu. The method of cooking and types of fish may be various; some of steam or but fish will normally be poached. Grilled or Fried with appropriate sauce and its garnishes.
The cutlery for Fish course are Fish Fork and Fish Knife.
1) Fish a l’anglaise
2) Poached salmon
3) Sole d bonne
4) Fish al orly


IV. ENTRÉE (The First meat course): The word ENTRÉE literally means, “ENTRÉE”. This is 1st meat course and initially served before ROTI but know it is served before Releve. It is usually complete the accompaniment by own appropriate vegetable or its other garnishes. It compasises of small garnished dishes which come from kitchen ready to served complete by rich gravy or sauce where the ‘Releve’ Flow the and ray. Potatoes are not served along with its but other vegetable can be served generally cutlery for this process is dessert knife and Fork. Example: Garnish cutlet, Brown stew, Sauce etc.


V. RELEVE (Main meat course): It is known as main course in English, this course is large then Entree and takes from up big joint of Lamb, meat, poultry etc. (This joint are either Fried or roasted meat and served with heavy and large garnished.) The accompaniments of Releve are potato and vegetable. Potato are served in 12 o’clock position lunch when vegetable are served at 1 o’clock position dinner. In a hot plate and cutlery can provided with large knife with large Fork. Main course can be;
1) Continental: (Accompaniment are potato and vegetable)
2) Indian: (Accompaniment are pickle, achaar, paapad, chatni, green salad)
3) Chinese: (Accompaniment are Chinese cruet-set, chill vinegar, soya-sauce, tomato sauce)


VI. SORBET (Rest Course): This course is introduced when the meat is very large. A sorbet is support to the dishes already served and stimulated flavor with champagne and other wine liqueur are served in tall or small glasses with tea spoon. Cigar is served for this course. Example: Egyptian sigar, William second, Romeo Juliet sigar etc.
If the meal is long for 10 minutes rest is allowed for next course. If the meal is short sorbet is very less Frequently include.
Note: Garnite (sorbet): It is a light sorbet made from fruits syrups.
Sorbet al’ American: Lemon or orange juice flavored e champagne.


VII. ROTI (Rosted course): This course contain rosted chicken, duck, Goose etc. Served their sauce or gravy. Dress salad is served separately on half-moon plate which feet on the top of the plate in which rosted item being served. General cutleries are dessert knife and dessert Fork.
Accompaniment: Tartar sauce, rost gravy, pastry. Chicken A’ La king. Chicken breast staffed with parsley with butter and rolled cylinder shape deep into beaten egg covered with bread crumbs. Deep Fry and garnish with butter beans. Green ca passium grilled tomato, baked vegetable. In this course mainly rosted item are served with their derivatives.


VIII. LEGUME ( Veg course): A part from releve or roti certain vegetable (asparagus, artichoke) may be served as separate course although this types of dishes not commonly used as starters. The French menu served a Fine rest vegetable as a separate course. At this stage the balance of food (meat) is gradually returns from heavier to light. The vegetable dishes are usually served hot in half plate. Depending upon the dish the cutleries are provided a small knife a small Fork. Vegetable like as asparagus, artichoke can be eaten with the finger therefore finger bowl are provided just after the course.


IX. ENTREMENT ( Sweet course): It is a sweet course and consist hot and cold budding, cake, Indian sweets, pastries, etc. The general cutlery is dessert spoon and dessert Fork.  [Food & Beverage equipment knowledge]


X. SAVOUREX (Hot sweet course): A SAVOUREX course usually consist of titbit size dishes. These are Fried bread pieces in different size and may be dessert item in modern dinner cheese is served before the meat course from the cheese trolley one reason is that they may continue to drink red wine with cheeses on the lunch or dinner menu savourex is generally served as alternative to sweet while in banquet, it is separate on its own coming between entrement and dessert. Generally cutlery is side knife and dessert Fork.


XI. DESSERT (Nut and cracker): This consist of basket or Fresh Fruits. They same time place on a table as a part of decoration. Dry Fruit can also be served in basked or half plates. Cutlery provided is fruit knife and fruit fork. Grape are served along with a grape scissors and bowl of fresh water is provided to wash the grapes. A nut cracker is passed for hard nuts. A finger bowl and fresh Napkin are passed after the service.


2. Classes of Menu: Types of menu may vary according to their establishment but mainly there are two classes or menu found in hotel.

i. Table d’ Hote menu [Table the host]:                                                                                                                                                                                                                     This is the fixed menu under the fixed price by own convenience. It is          identified by:
1) Being Restricted menu.
2) Offering ¾ course.
3) A limited choice with in each course.
4) A fixed selling price.
5) A dishes being ready at a set time.

ii. A La’ carte menu [From the card]:                                                                                                                                                                                                                     It gives the total freedom of choice from a menu containing a number of item individually price. A La’ carte menu from the card, dishes are grounded under different heading. Easier for guest to select dishes are usually cooked order. Sometime is taken to survey more.

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